In the last two decades, electricity grids face many issues that they were not designed to handle. The demand has increased worldwide and massive power outages are likely to become more probable with the increasing age and load of power infrastructures, with the decentralization of the electricity generation, with the complexity of the power system operation. Thus, environment-friendly development, higher reliability and better security are the main expectations by the stake-holders, actors and users of the electrical system.


Modeling the complexity of electrical system has become necessary to understand how Smart Grids properties emerge from their complex organization and to design resilient and agile architectures for the optimization of Smart Grids operations.
Smart Grids are not engineered from ground-up. They result from the incremental transformation of current power systems into smart electrical systems, by the connection of new subsystems or devices. The proposal of a framework for standardization is therefore a crucial issue to ensure that an efficient and interoperable Smart Grid is achieved by the transformation process.



We propose to use fractality as a core concept to model, analyze and design future Smart Grids. We will develop new analysis tools and design concepts based on fractal geometry to improve both the control of highly distributed loads and generators in power systems and the resilience of the future grid. This will lead to a new architecture of Smart Grids.
We will show how the self-similar topology can benefit to the electrical system, from consumers to utilities.


The long-term goal of the Fractal Grid methodology is to provide a framework for the development of international standards for Smart Grid technologies and to facilitate the multi-scale deployment of Smart Grids. For this purpose, it will consider aspects ranging from weather systems and market organization down to communication and electrical networks with a particular attention paid to the latter aspect.

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FractalGrid’s objectives are to analyze the geometry and performances of current electrical systems and to propose new designs of networks for the future Smart Grids. The project organization and work breakdown structure reflect these goals.
Multiscale analysis
of current power grids
Links between electrical variables, grid dynamics, resilience and topological parameters of the grid.
Links between spatial organization of built-up spaces and to- pology of distribution grids.
of a Fractal Grids
Fractal topologies that take into account by design the multilayered and highly distributed nature of electrical systems.
Control architecture of the fractal grid to cope with the flexibility at all levels (generation, transmission, distribution, end users).
Methodological and simulation framework to approach the other aspects that appear and influence the power system operation at different scales (weather conditions, electricity market).
and communication


Project deliverables: click on the icon to download the file.

Tuuhia Teihotua. "Analyse de contingences à l'aide de power factory". Rapport de Master 1 EEATS - Laboratoire G2Elab


Xavier Lehmann, Allan Poirson, "Analyse fractale des réseaux de distribution d’électricité", Rapport de Master 1 ISA - Laboratoire TheMA


Allan Poirson, "Analyses multifractales du réseau de distribution d’électricité. Agglomérations de Besançon et de Mulhouse". Rapport de Master 2 ISA – Laboratoire TheMA


Dinh Truc Ha, "Line outage vulnerabilities of power systems : Models and indicators", PhD thesis, Université Grenoble Alpes, 6th March 2018


Stefan-Bogdan Leu, "Spectral analysis of distribution networks". Rapport de stage - Laboratoire G2elab


Oana-Adriana Lebedov, "Fractal analysis and planning of Grenoble distribution networks". Rapport de stage - Laboratoire G2Elab


Yousra Sidqi, "Analyse et planification fractales des réseaux électriques du futur". Thèse de doctorat , Université Grenoble Alpes, 22 octobre 2019.


Communiqué de presse évènement final, Paris, 7 février 2020


Andrea Michiorri, "Outil de simulation pour le réseau fractal", Rapport d'études, ARMINES


Project publications: click on the icon to download the file.

N. Retiere et al., "Fractal Grid – towards the future smart grid," in CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, vol. 2017


Kariniotakis, George et al., "Challenges, innovative architectures and control strategies for future networks: the Web-of-Cells, fractal grids and other concepts" in CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, 2017.


Yousra Sidqi, Nicolas Retière, Pierre Frankhauser, Gilles Vuidel. "Analyzing the fractal behaviour of the distribution power grid in the city of Grenoble-France". CIRED, Jun 2019, Madrid, Spain.


D. T. Ha, N. Retière and J. Caputo, "A New Metric to Quantify the Vulnerability of Power Grids", International Conference on System Science and Engineering (ICSSE), Dong Hoi, Vietnam, 2019.


Yousra Sidqi, Isabelle Thomas, Pierre Frankhauser, Nicolas Retière, "Comparing fractal indices of electric networks to roads and buildings: The case of Grenoble (France)", Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 531, 2019


N. Retiére, D. T. Ha and J. Caputo, "Spectral Graph Analysis of the Geometry of Power Flows in Transmission Networks," in IEEE Systems Journal


J G Caputo et al, "Spectral analysis of load flow equations for transmission networks", 2019 Eng. Res. Express 1 025007


Four academic labs will be in charge of the research development and the scientific advancement of the project.


The project concerns all the industrial actors ranging from the regulator, the TSO, DSO, utilities, electrical systems and devices suppliers, major corporate customers. Some representatives of these actors are gathered in an Advisory Board to benefit from their strategic advice and their experience in designing, engineering, managing and operating the electrical system.

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